Quilt is a set of scripts to manage a series of patches by keeping track of the changes each patch makes. Patches can be applied, un-applied, refreshed, etc. The key philosophical concept is that your primary output is patches, not ".c" files or ".h" files, so patches are the first-class object here. It was originally based on Andrew Morton's patch scripts published on the Linux kernel mailing list a while ago, but has been heavily modified since then.
GNU Make examines the timestamps on a set of interdependent files, and, if necessary, issues commands to bring them up-to-date. The user creates a makefile describing the files, their relationships, and the commands to run. Most often make is used to rebuild libraries and programs when their sources are changed, but it can be used for any situation where one set of files needs to be generated from another set.
SBuild is a Scala-based build system. It features platform independence, multi project support, automatic detection of needed actions, automatic up-to-date detection, a flexible scheme handler mechanism, Maven repository support, Ant task integration, automatic cross-project resolving of dependencies, high speed, a simple "syntax" that requires almost no Scala knowledge, behind-the-sceens compilation of build script to bytecode for fast execution time, and built-in scheme handlers for HTTP and Maven.