LibRCrypt is an Objective C library for complex data encryption based on Rubik's Cubes. The idea's pretty simple: If you represent data as the squares on a Rubik's Cube, you can apply transformations to the data and get back encrypted data, all of which is commutatitive. Just as a Rubik's Cube can be solved if you know all of the moves, this data can be "unwound", so to speak, if you know all of the transforms applied, but the encryption is even deeper than that. A cube can only cover (9 squares per face x 6 faces) 54 significant bits of data. Therefore, compressed data must be composed of multiple (even thousands) of Rubik's Cubes.
John the Ripper is a fast password cracker, currently available for many flavors of Unix, Windows, DOS, BeOS, and OpenVMS. Its primary purpose is to detect weak Unix passwords. It supports several crypt(3) password hash types commonly found on Unix systems, as well as Windows LM hashes. On top of this, lots of other hashes and ciphers are added in the community-enhanced version (-jumbo), and some are added in John the Ripper Pro.
strongSwan is a complete IPsec implementation for the Linux, Android, Maemo, FreeBSD, and Mac OS X operating systems. It interoperates with with most other IPsec-based VPN products via the IKEv2 or IKEv1 key exchange protocols. The focus of the strongSwan project is on strong authentication mechanisms using X.509 public key certificates and optional secure storage of private keys on smartcards through a standardized PKCS#11 interface. A rich choice of modular plugins adds additional features like Trusted Network Connect or advanced cryptographical algorithms.
jEncrypt is a commandline file encryption archiver. Files are encrypted with the AES-CTR mode, which was recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in 2001 (NIST SP 800-38A). AES-CTR mode only provides confidentiality. It requires a message authentication code such as CBC-MAC to ensure an encrypted message is not accidentally modified or maliciously tampered with, which jEncrypt currently does not provide.
CryptSharp provides a number of password crypt algorithms: BCrypt, MD5 (and Apache's htpasswd variant), PHPass (WordPress, phpBB, Drupal), SHA256, SHA512, and Traditional and Extended DES. It also includes Blowfish, SCrypt, and PBKDF2 for any HMAC (.NET's built-in PBKDF2 implementation supports only SHA-1). If you are looking to store passwords, odds are CryptSharp will have the algorithm you want.
ipt_pkd is an iptables extension implementing port knock detection with SPA (single packet authorization). This project provides 3 parts: the kernel module ipt_pkd, the iptables user space module libipt_pkd.so, and a user space client knock program. For the knock packet, it uses a UDP packet sent to a random port that contains a SHA-256 of a timestamp, small header, random bytes, and a shared key. ipt_pkd checks the time window of the packet and does the SHA-256 to verify the packet. The shared key is never sent.