suPHP is a combination of an Apache module (mod_suphp) and an executable which provides a wrapper for PHP. With both together, it is possible to execute PHP scripts with the permissions of their owner without having to place a PHP binary in each user's cgi-bin directory. suPHP doesn't need Apache's suExec, and provides a logging function.
sud (superuser daemon) permits a user to switch to root privileges and to use a suid program in a nosuid environment. It is based on a client/server model and on the ability to pass file descriptors between processes. sud permits you to choose your authentication method, and your effective credentials will be checked by using a Unix domain socket.
sudosh can be used as a default login shell or a filter that takes advantage of PTY devices in order to sit between the user's keyboard and a program, in this case a shell. It was designed specifically to be used in conjunction with sudo, and allows the execution of a root or application shell with logging. It is basically a VCR and will record root shell sessions and also has the ability to play back the sessions as they were originally recorded. It records all input/output, keyboard input, and timing information so that the session can be played back in the original format.
Survey is a nearly complete list of your system's configuration files. It also lists installed packages, hardware info, dmesg output, etc. The resulting printout is 25-50 pages in size, fully documenting your system. Survey is invaluable after a blown install or upgrade when it is too late to get this information. Large organizations could use survey to document every Linux system.